A Weekly Bulletin of Southern African Affairs
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Vol.11 1996

South Africa

SA development

No.01 5 Jan 96: Bengu under fire after another year of matric failures; More doctors sought after Cubans; Specialist team sent in to stoke up RDP in Transkei; Squatters form national body to press for land, not houses,

No.02 12 Jan 96: IBA prepares draft law as SABC sails ahead with own plans; Migrants problem worsening; Re-think on Gauteng housing,

No.03 19 Jan 96: Bill introduced to give security to tenants on farms; Military spending may go to women as SA prepares new laws; SABC backs down after IBA threat; Taxis to carry bricks,

No.04 26 Jan 96: Census will finally establish accurate population size; Housing ministry issues self critical report; SA income gap among worst,

No.05 2 Feb 96: ANC seeks independent prisons watchdog after new unrest; Home loans deal falters over non-payment culture; Regional TV programmes; Science park moves ahead; Swiss RDP aid promised,

No.06 9Feb96: Misgivings amid SABC's razzmatazz; Racist exclusions to be ended; Wide ranging report on land canvasses new ideas,

No.07 16 Feb 96: Claim for 'ancestral homeland' dismissed; Clash looms over boycott of home loan repayments; Employment issue key in military review; Mandela makes call for broad consensus round RDP; Resistance mounts to public service cuts,

No.08 23 Feb 96: Affirmative action law proposed,

No.09 1 March 96: AIDS 'grossly underestimated'; Deal with US casino company; Foreign police help; Homeland to get R1.2bn boost; Mbeki takes reins in RDP plan for 6% growth; Plan to settle squatters; Telecomms paper out soon,

No.16 26apr96: Religion is sticking point,

No.10 8 March 96: Bengu seeks to placate after schools furore; Electricification moving ahead; Housing far off target;

No.11 15 March 96: Black consumers to overtake whites by year 2000; Changes to defence force delayed; Fisheries protection fails; Oil companies register interest,

No.12 22 March 96: First life cover for HIV sufferers,

No.13 29 March 96: Go-ahead for primary health care; Official rights body launched,

No.15 19 April 96: First satellite for launch; New look at use of foreign grants,

No.17 3 May 96: 500 crime syndicates in operation; Crime strategy raises few hopes for curbs to crime; High police suicide rate; Witchcraft report blames healers,

No.20 24 May 96: Cabinet approves anti-crime strategy; Crisis in tertiary education with campus race clashes; Farmers to mop up after SADF; Military adopts gay equality rules; Right winger security highlights campus tensions; Uncertainty over Channel Africa,

No.21 31 May 96: Communal tenure law agreed; High HIV forecast for SA,

No.22 7 June 96: Minority' default on home loans,

No.23 14 June 96: IBA finds stature diminished by new media minister; Mbeki repeats need for SABC to carry government voice; Troops to stay in crime fight,

No.24 21 June 96: NP attacks housing policy; Ombudsman for the military; Police 'war on criminals'; Reprieve for Channel Africa; State plans own news agency; Witchcraft summit meeting,

No.25 28 June 96: 8% tourism growth foreseen; Population to surge by a third; Request for more Cuban doctors; SA has worst TB rate in world; Transkei to get R1.8bn boost,

No.26 5 July 96: Brain drain speeds up; Civics decide against boycotts,

No.27 12 July 96: Arts Council bill announced; New anti-corruption machinery; New anti-crime laws introduced,

No.28 19 July 96: NGOs fear for future of civil society as RDP fades,

No.29 26 July 96: Illiteracy rate lower than thought; Limit placed on expatriates,

No.30 2 August 96: Cape Town anxious on Olympics; Emigration figures double; Fears of civil service exodus; Military White Paper consultation,

No.31 9 Aug 96: Most liberal abortion law raises free vote issue; R20m for Mandela children fund; Tribe claims Kruger park,

No.32 16 Aug 96: Civil servants numbers unknown; Farmers told support will end,

No.33 6 Sept 96: Black population swells; Cape townships in collapse; Hate speech' law agreed; Whites continue to leave,

No.35 20 Sept 96: Unions take lead in Masakhane; Zulu most spoken language,

No.36 27 Sept 96: Bid to retain air force pilots; Channel Africa gets reprieve; Mandela firm against hanging,

No.37 4 Oct 96: Arrears mount as payment boycott is maintained; Bid to outlaw racism; Polygamy should stay say lawyers; Progress on land reform too slow says Hanekom,

No.38 11 Oct 96: Dramatic rise in black churches; Ex-RDP chief takes over crime prevention unit; First national census begins; Military adds submarines to list,

No.39 18 Oct 96: Brain drain accelerates; English for tertiary education; Flaw shows up in land restitution; Griquas object to description; New schools law on the way; Redistribution in welfare; Transkei may be base for gangs,

No.40 25 Oct 96: Administration 'bankrupt'; Confidence falls away as benefits fail to materialise; Emigration rises 18.6% in a year; Military describes its future shape; MPs' register of interests delayed,

No.41 1 Nov 96: Apartheid education ceases; Cheap rentals plan announced; Infrastructure company launched; More Cuban doctors to fill gap; Most liberal abortion law adopted; Publishers combine; Telecomms regulator strengthened,

No.42 8 Nov 96: Go-ahead for 'Volkskool'; Ground cleared for new TV station,

No.43 15 Nov 96: Call for more black business in defence industry; Protest against military exercise; Warnings for democracy if liberal economic course followed,

No.44 22 Nov 96: Call on poor whites to join blacks; Ebola case in Johannesburg; First substantial gains against crime claimed by police; Prison population at all time high,

No.45 29 Nov 96: AIDS will cause politicisation of health care budget; Emigration still going up; Police corruption targeted; Taxi violence in NW Province; Tourism to be restructured,

No.46 6 Dec 96: Immigration green paper planned; New SABC board appointed; Witch burning trial postponed after political interference,

No.47-8 13 Dec 96: A few more arrive than depart; Historic constitution heralded by opposition, but not by IFP; Lekota boosts Free State's anti-crime reputation; NGOs give up on official donors, plough own furrow; Respect for police increases; S. Africans 'getting used to crime'; Transkei mass violence pinned on Gauteng gang; Vigilantes form national anti-crime body around Pagad,

SA economy

No.01 5 Jan 96: Anger among stokvels members,

No.02 12 Jan 96: Cosatu targets lack of investment in strategy for year; Exchange controls 'could go'; Investment agency backed,

No.03 19 Jan 96: Cosatu postpones strike on privatisation after deal; Stokvels under spotlight,

No.04 26 Jan 96: Bid to avert 10,000 mining losses; Chemical workers against Mossgas privatisation; Half million more tourists expected; Homeland debts 'miscalculated'; Unions attack VAT plans,

No.05 2 Feb 96: Massacre outside factory highlights deepening jobs crisis,

No.06 9Feb96: Deal signed with unions on privatisation; Gold price surge 'will not aid troubled mine'; Shop stewards secure rights,

No.07 16 Feb 96: GDP moves towards record high; Mboweni sets out to 'modernise employment'; Pressure for development of labour intensive industry; Textile workers demonstrate against job losses,

No.08 23 Feb 96: Reserve Bank lets Rand plunge,

SA international No.46 6 Dec 96: SA-China trade set to soar as Taiwan is ditched,

No.10 8 March 96: Mossgas to be developed further;

No.11 15 March 96: Budget taxes SA's giant pension funds, holds back on VAT; Foreign reserves fall; RDP attack on big business plan; Women's budget plan mooted,

No.12 22 March 96: Arms sales were worth R870m; De Beers sells to small companies; Taxes may stay uncollected,

No.13 29 March 96: Concern mounts at state's short term borrowing; Homeland reintegration problems,

No.14 12 April 96: Reserves fall further,

No.15 19 April 96: Confusion on who is jobless; Interest rates to be kept high; Maize farmers get windfall; Manuel on damage limitation trip as Rand and confidence slips; RDP will continue says Mbeki,

No.16 26apr96: Crime and low labour productivity remain foreign concerns; Direct investment seen as key to unlocking RDP growth target; Growth rate will flatten out; SA admits fisheries weakness,

No.17 3May96: Conciliation commission on track says Mboweni; Eskom to consult unions; Trade surplus drops,

No.21 31 May 96: Eskom gets R300m EIB loan; Stals sets out economic choice,

No.22 7 June 96: Collapse in international investors' views of SA; Economic centrepiece Nedlac stays stuck in the doldrums; Foreign meetings seek to reassure; Inflation set to rise as Rand falls; Nedlac report documents barriers to economic growth; Season of wage discontent ahead; Tiger' status for region reviewed; Value of parastatals queried ahead of privatisation,

No.23 14 June 96: Anxiety mounts in region awaiting South Africa's hard sell; Battles ahead as growth blueprint aims at wage cut,

No.24 21 June 96: Deep concerns about fragile economy underlie blueprint; Details of the growth blueprint; Labour summit planned to forestall divisions; Malaysian giant buys into Engen,

No.25 28 June 96: Ramaphosa deal may not emerge; Strikes set to rise after lull; Two-tier fuel prices proposed,

No.26 5 July 96: Affirmative action discussion; Confidence begins to return as currency stabilises; Imports and exports grow; Platinum miners sacked after non-union strike at Rustenberg; Telecomms minister seeks foreign investment in Europe, US,

No.27 12 July 96: ANC premier Phosa launches eulogy for privatisation; Business confidence rebounds; Maputo Corridor seen as key focus for foreign investors; Selective re-employment of wildcat Rustenburg strikers; Textile workers threaten action,

No.28 19 July 96: Foreign investors will wait till Mandela goes, says Cosatu chief; Sacob signs deal with British business chiefs,

No.29 26 July 96: Cellphone collusion suspected; Funds found for oil development; Non-compliance with black empowerment will be punished; Textile workers in major strike,

No.30 2 August 96: Bumper harvest boosts hopes; Interest rate fall predicted; Mediation efforts in textile strike,

No.31 9 Aug 96: Business confidence falls; Official miners' strike ends; Private funds collected for infrastructure,

No.32 16 Aug 96: Cosatu demands increased intervention by the state; Government ties Rand's fate to success against union opposition; KZN employers seek to avoid key manufacturing union deal,

No.33 6 Sept 96: Boost to trade lifts deficit gloom; Ramaphosa secures business base; US hamburger chain wins appeal,

No.34 13 Sept 96: Manuel denies exchange controls cause investment drought; Mbeki hits out at big business as investment slows; UK gaming company in KZN,

No.35 20 Sept 96: Eurobond issue launched; R500m Malaysian investment; Trade policy plan worked out; Unions map out strategy on privatisation,

No.36 27 Sept 96: World Bank at centre of division on SA's economic strategy,

No.37 4 Oct 96: Money laundering 'serious threat'; Netherlands bank to boost trade; SA sells anti-mine vehicle to US,

No.38 11 Oct 96: Black executives organise on the quiet to break white business hold; Falling Rand boosts investment,

No.39 18 Oct 96: Optimism over gold price; Unions' case boosted as jobless estimates are cut by a third; White' banks seek to buy into Johnnic black empowerment deal,

No.40 25 Oct 96: KwaZulu-Natal investment corridor announced; New blow-up on economic policy as unions snub IMF; Pressure from the region for speed-up of privatisation,

No.41 1 Nov 96: EU attacks IMF programmes; Government caught out as Rand takes new dive,

No.42 8 Nov 96: Business presses for 'stand-by' IMF arrangement; Government on 'slow reconstruction' path; R18bn in FDI in two years; Three drop out of Telkom race,

No.43 15 Nov 96: Boost to SA platinum production,

No.44 22 Nov 96: Gold output remains sharply down; Government debates how to apply its austerity policies; More strikes predicted,

No.45 29 Nov 96: Anglo yields control of JCI to black business; Pre-budget battle lines drawn by Cosatu attack on GEAR,

No.46 6 Dec 96: Black consortium 'overcharged'; Massive surplus on SA trade account heartens government,

No.47-8 13 Dec 96: Economists counter optimistic Reserve Bank view on growth; UK giant takes stake in premier financial papers,

SA politics

No.01 5 Jan 96: CIA chief was installed in Telkom, gave training manuals; Civics head for clash over law on traditional leaders; Former Askari gunned down 'to stop revelations'; Mufamadi defends arrest of former Apla commander; Optimism for coming year among blacks, but not whites; Security to be boosted after massacres in KwaZulu-Natal,

No.02 12 Jan 96: Conference will review SA's defence requirement; Killings in KZN remain high; Search for Hintsa's head backed; Tensions revealed between security agency and police; Traumatised police 'no longer a cohesive force'; Volkstaat dispute resurfaces as Mandela rejects 'ethnic states'; Volunteers replace conscripts,

No.03 19 Jan 96: Afrikaners battle to create broad front grouping; Constitution writing at final stage; Ivory report doubles Malan's court problems; Ministers focus on massacre in bid to break cycle of violence; PAC plummets into disarray amid resignations of top leaders; Second phase of MK demob; Shake-up in old style parties signalled by NP move,

No.04 26 Jan 96: Arrests of pro-IFP police signal new power balance; Hate speech ban opposed for constitution; Lid is lifted on more hit-squad death riddles; Police and Intelligence investigate each other over fresh accusations; Truth commissioners gear up,

No.05 2 Feb 96: ANC expels senator; ANC reminds Commission of '2,000 political prisoners'; Confrontation ending in rush to complete KZN constitution; Farrakhan unleashes fierce debate; Goldstone to return; Key witness at De Kock trial; Makwetu seeks to calm PAC; Mandela denies donation to Nigerian opposition; Officer held over 'PAC attack'; Transkei weapons still missing; Truth commissioners seek to reassure Viljoen; Warning on explosive scrap,

No.06 9Feb96: Bugging accuser charged; East Cape gets special voice at Truth Commission; IFP lashes out as police team clamps down; Signals set for cabinet changes after Meyer resigns; Single editors' body proposed,

No.07 16 Feb 96: Anti-subversion chief revealed; AWB men freed after court ruling; DRC supporters of Truth Commission welcomed; NP drops call for power-sharing; NP seeks IFP deal for local poll; Top IFP figure seeks to push out the warlords,

No.08 23 Feb 96: Desperate bid to break provincial powers deadlock; Mercenaries to be banned; More killings as ANC tries to breach no-go areas; NIA exonerated' in bug report; NP minister resigns under cloud, sets back revival; Pressure on police to come to Truth Commission; Violence hits small town schools; Youth League to ditch president,

No.09 1 March 96: First amnesty applications from right-wing bombers; KZN constitution key to successful imbizo; Mandela backs summit to defuse schools dispute; NIA bugging report fails to clear up confusion; Unsurprising verdict in favour of an Afrikaner homeland,

No.10 8 March 96: Agreement ahead on property; Chiefs to get council; Constitutional consensus leaves out Zulu, Boer; Crunch time for KwaZulu constitution; Embarrassment mounts over Aids play spending; Hamas decision returns spotlight to foreign policy; IFP minister pulls out of forum; Jumpy Rand will force Mbeki into more public role; Malan charges expanded to include wider conspiracy; NP replacement for Williams; Over 700 new senior police; Pretoria poll shows sharp swing among whites to volkstaat; Truth hearings delayed; Youth League president elected;

No.11 15 March 96: Bop killer muddies ANC case; De Kock applies to Truth Commission for amnesty; Malan trial opens, set to be lengthy and divisive; Minorities views aired; Primary school taken over; Right wing threat 'taken seriously',

No.12 22 March 96: ANC to end immunities; IFP knuckles under for deal on provincial constitution; Intelligence job for Skweyiya; Mandela warns of 'provocateurs' in police service; Muslim band invades; Phosa gives more evidence of plot; Primary school battle flares up; Unions threaten key political alliance ahead of privatisations,

No.13 29 March 96: Afrikaner groups again make language plea to Mandela; Billions will be spend on huge defence force refit; Cabinet reshuffle sees finance minister leave; Haggling ahead on powers of provinces in constitution; Inkatha flouts ban, hopes for peace imbizo dim; Military soon ready for peace-keeping operations; Police detectives drain away; Report signals end of arms industry as big export earner,

No.14 12 April 96: Afrikaans schools bid fails; ANC shocked as provincial poll defeat by Inkatha looms; At its lowest ebb PAC prepares Africanist convention; Mbeki clears out opponents to his macro-economic line; New cabinet line-up; Ousted minister Jordan baulked at privatisation; Right wingers get long sentences; Some progress in behind-the-scenes constitutional talks; Truth Commission prepares for East Cape sittings,

No.18 10 May 96: ANC's economic vulnerability demonstrated as NP pulls out; Call for judge to be arraigned; Electoral commission bill tabled; Final constitution adopted; Indemnity plea by general' in Malan trial; Inkatha stays in government - for the time being; Mangope arrest expected; Mixed Afrikaner reaction; Truth Commission seeks to extend amnesty powers; Tutu cool on ANC hero,

No.15 19 April 96: Amnesty plea fails for ex-agent; Armoured cars sale concern; Buthelezi threatens to pull out after poll delay sought; Contralesa leader muzzled; Long-term strategy as Ramaphosa moves into business; Policeman tells of blasts; Truth Commission opens, still challenged on all sides; Verdict fears grow as State's case falters in Malan trial,

No.16 26apr96: Agreement on major issues; ANC now seeks staggered poll; Buthelezi drawn deeper into Malan trial by MI papers; General strike call heightens ANC alliance schizophrenia; IFP local leader arrested; More problems revealed for Truth Commission; Right-wingers hope for opening; Smit murders probe reopened,

No.17 3May96: A million petitions on Afrikaans; After national strike alliance seeks to hide the strains; AWB bomber recaptured; Media attacked over Truth Commission reporting; Rightwing radio legally on air; Spectre of referendum rises over constitution talks; Tensions rise after Zulu royal family attacked; Western Cape poll on schedule,

No.19 17 May 96: ANC hopes for new relationship with IFP in cabinet; Anxieties allayed as ANC moves rapidly to fill gaps; Business to fight labour clause; Chiefs find powers diminished; Drop charges call by Malan; Economic blueprint stalls as government seeks consensus; First test for freed parties is Western Cape local election; High stakes in high growth region; Land reform group angry at limitations; NP was surprised on constitutional power-sharing clash; Smaller hearings ahead for Truth Commission; Vlakplaas chief admits killings,

No.20 24 May 96: Ex-SADF chief acquitted in trial of apartheid generals; McBride case puts ANC leaders in Truth Commission spotlight; New deputy ministers chosen; NP attacks foreign policy; Police probe launched after IFP 'torture' death; Signs of showdown on ANC economic policy; Uncertainty in Western Cape,

No.21 31 May 96: ANC divided on remaining in provincial cabinet; Confusion mounts as Tutu faces contempt sentence; Conservative Western Cape out of phase with reforming government; Dutton to join Goldstone; Holomisa alleges Transkei invasion plans; Mandela seeks to cool labour-business antagonism; Peace summit ahead after IFP-ANC 'positive' talks; Privatisation minister defended; Victims' families move to PAC,

No.22 7 June 96: AIDS play scrapped; Bloody weekend threatens tentative peace moves; NP wins in Western Cape but ANC makes rural gains; Olympic bid gets go-ahead; Public discussion begins on 'evolving' foreign policy,

No.23 14 June 96: Buthelezi implicated in Malan trial by top IFP lieutenant; Row as ANC seeks to vet testimony to Truth Commission; SADF chemical war project probe; Secret IFP training camps discounted; Split reported in FF over volkstaat; Violence in KZN 'declining',

No.24 21 June 96: Foreign land holding queried; Guilty verdicts for police in Motherwell bomb case; R6m lost in ANC Women's League accounts; Tensions remain say monitors; Troops pour in as countdown to key election begins,

No.25 28 June 96: Court overturns verdict on notice period for testimony; Government wary of right-winger; Mandela asserts links with SACP; Moment of truth for NP as top police prepare to testify; Unions proclaim victory over banks on interest rates; Urban-rural split likely in KwaZulu-Natal vote,

No.26 5 July 96: De Klerk denies seeking distance from apartheid generals; Inkatha, reduced to rural base, begins post-mortem; Plea for staggered polls; Reparations weighed up,

No.27 12 July 96: Alleged 'third force' involvement in Shell House killings; Anger at centralised police powers in new constitution; Chiefs seek to secure constitutional rights; Hopes for merger between ANC and IFP remain distant,

No.28 19 July 96: Arrests for Mxenge killing; Hardliners regroup under threat from rapprochement with ANC; Pik Botha 'to set up party'; Third force' blamed for blast; Trouble for Holomisa after leak,

No.29 26 July 96: Cosatu and SACP throw down gauntlet on economy; Freedom Front faces hard volkstaat question; IFP, wooed by ANC and NP, decides to keep options open; PAC might enter government as Mandela seeks to cover the bases,

No.30 2 August 96: Bid to end amnesties thrown out; Buthelezi backs onslaught on moderate secretary general; Concern as Holomisa is ousted after TRC evidence; Departure of ANC leader opens way for strife at the top; Mandela leads way in fudging clash of views with unions,

No.31 9 Aug 96: Afrikaans teachers set up union; High level fears for stability as gangsters thwart police; Holomisa calls for ANC audit; Hotels link with ANC questioned; IFP secretary general tells of assassination plot; Law will ban paramilitary training; Modise's wife becomes a general; NP tries to take over ANC's vacated RDP space; Tutu calls on apartheid judges,

No.32 16 Aug 96: Apartheid parliament debt queried; Backing for rebels described; Bomb blast at Pretoria Technikon; Generation conflict blamed; Massacre police reinstated; Mdlalose praises federalism; No apology for Holomisa as Mandela admits Kerzner donation; Pressure increases for use of army against crime,

No.33 6 Sept 96: Aids play scandal drags on; ANC expulsion seeks to sink defiant Holomisa; Angola war troops deployed against criminals; Ban on public arms; Crime is out of control, society collapsing says Mandela; De Kock verdict 'challenges NP'; Deal will open way for apartheid police to testify; Mandela confirms Machel relationship; New intelligence chiefs appointed; Ngubane leaves cabinet for KZN; Volkstaat in arid north-west,

No.34 13 Sept 96: ANC sees drug interests behind Zuma criticism; Another volkstaat project mooted; Botha seeks to distance himself from homeland system; General admits opening fire; IFP rejoins constitutional debate at last moment; Judge queries reason for not charging Buthelezi; Sexwale denies Stocks link; Six anti-crime laws planned; Whites join township residents in culture of non-payment,

No.35 20 Sept 96: Cape NP leader resigns; De Kock's revelations may deliver perpetrators to TRC; EU boost for TRC; Hintsa head man charged; Malan trial will be affected by De Kock testimony; Military reveal billion Rand plans; PAC to try again; Probe into mines violence; Reparation plan prepared; Row over judge's nomination,

No.36 27 Sept 96: Apartheid era generals buy time; Chikane poisoning still unsolved; Inkatha will be offered sop to secure backing for constitution; Justice minister to contest ANC Western Cape leadership; Malan trial argument ends; Mbeki 'in error' says Holomisa; PAC seeks to clean up its act,

No.37 4 Oct 96: End to IFP boycott part of strategic waiting game?; Omar elected to head Western Cape ANC; Ousted Holomisa reveals store of ANC support in Transkei; Swedish police to follow up Palme murder allegations; TRC takes hard line with Vlok and his generals; Zimbabwean captives seek hearing at TRC,

No.38 11 Oct 96: Army generals prepare; EU 'wants faster spending'; Inkatha renews boycott, prepares to oppose new constitution; Kerzner probe finally to go ahead; Malan case gives body blow to Truth Commission hopes; TRC silent on subpoenas to Vlok and police generals; Williamson held by Angolans,

No.39 18 Oct 96: Machel death probe still open; Missiles uncovered on test range; NP gets black provincial leader; Top police generals to appear as Truth Commission bounces back,

No.40 25 Oct 96: ANC continues confrontation with black journalists; Bland military account rejected; Chief justice named; Former police chief's evidence demolishes NP's defence; Inkatha builds bridges to traditional leaders; Lekota faces disciplinary hearing; Massive fraud in KwaZulu-Natal; North coast remains violent; Only three amnesties granted,

No.41 1 Nov 96: Sabotage of main rail line; State Security Council was command centre, TRC hears,

No.42 8 Nov 96: ANC tells both sides in Free State dispute to resign; Evidence mounts of rampant police corruption; Holomisa says Mbeki gave OK for his allegations; Reconciliation aim in danger of being lost amidst rising anger; SADF generals slammed; Tutu puts squeeze on ANC,

No.43 15 Nov 96: Controversial attorney-general backs away from prosecutions; Massive shake-up ahead as Eastern Cape sinks; Mokaba calls off challenge; Police unit chief called by TRC; Reparations move; Riots in contested town; SA police union 'set up by security police'; Zulu king's image maker resigns ahead of political shifts,

No.44 22 Nov 96: ANC man shot in feud with civics; Battles in IFP over Zulu king's palace expenditure; Gqozo gives evidence on shooting; Mandela seeks to forestall future ANC provincial battles; Protests as Lekota goes to senate; Repeat attack on black journalists,

No.45 29 Nov 96: Hundreds' seek amnesty through TRC as deadline nears; SA mercenary firm may be used for domestic security; Troops and police move into Transkei trouble spots; Warlord expelled from IFP,

No.46 6 Dec 96: ANC structures in disarray; Anger at new Free State premier; Arms for diamonds swop; Cabinet proposed 'more deaths'; Coetzee murder trial postponed; Gauteng ANC nominates Mbeki; Holomisa threatens to sue ANC; PAC 'unfit to handle finances'; Soldiers to receive rights training; Viljoen reveals extent of pre-election secession plot; Webster assassin exposed,

No.47-8 13 Dec 96: ANC 'could destroy itself from within' warns Zuma; Holomisa plans new party, NP talks of alliance; Trust Feed killer amnestied; Truth Commission in tug of war over military agents' amnesty,


No.02 12 Jan 96: Algerian gold venture discussed; China takes umbrage; EU mission to go in midst of talks; Swedish king for SA,

No.04 26 Jan 96: US-SA naval manoeuvres,

No.05 2 Feb 96: Brussels infighting sharpens over SA free trade pact,

No.06 9Feb96: Anxiety rises over China imports; SA offers to mediate on W.Sahara,

No.07 16 Feb 96: Mandela faces barrage over invitations; Security council seat backed,

No.08 23 Feb 96: Embarrassment piled on foreign affairs after Algerian debacle; EU seeks fishing deal with SA,

No.09 1 March 96: Anxiety grows with more delays on EU-SA free trade deal; Russia, De Beers finally agree,

No.10 8 March 96: EU free trade deal may be linked to fishing agreement; SA warns US over Armscor;

No.11 15 March 96: SA to step up campaign in EU,

No.12 22 March 96: French military visits; More confusion round EU's list of excluded products; SACP leaders visit confrontationist Beijing,

No.13 29 March 96: Nzo warms relations with Beijing; SA concern as mandate finally agreed on EU free trade talks,

No.14 12 April 96: Caution urged on EU trade deal; Renwick takes Fluor post; Saudi arms sales mooted; Trip to Taiwan planned to resolve recognition issue; Wind-up radio sells in Europe, too,

No.18 10 May 96: Arms sales countries listed; End to use of land mines; EU trade with region up slightly; Muslims protest at Israeli action; Trade deal with China,

No.15 19 April 96: Danish management training; SA courts disfavour and backs Libya on Lockerbie; US, Japan agree on promotion,

No.16 26apr96: EU blocks Gencor's planned 'platinum cartel' deal; US Congress' concern on SA Libya policy,

No.17 3May96: Hezbollah bases claim denied; Japan seeks support for UN bid; Jordan's king meets Mandela; Rump Yugoslavia links; SA takes on revamp of Unctad,

No.19 17 May 96: Nzo drops Taiwan visit; SA to host telecomms meeting; World body hits at Mossgas,

No.20 24 May 96: China gives Pretoria breathing space on Taiwan; Germany denies SA rightwing connections,

No.21 31 May 96: Two months to China decision,

No.23 14 June 96: Key issues undecided on eve of EU trade talks; SA politicians in N. Ireland; US patience with SA foreign policy wears thin,

No.25 28 June 96: Hard slog ahead is signalled at SA-EU free trade talks; Mine detection deal with France,

No.26 5 July 96: Mandela appears to veer towards Taiwan in China dispute,

No.27 12 July 96: Mandela's victorious ascent may break through investment barrier; Modise warns US against continuing arms ban; Police chief seeks to reassure; Taiwan leader to visit SA; UK adds £60m to aid,

No.28 19 July 96: Mandela confident of support in EU free trade talks; UK jet contract goes to SA,

No.29 26 July 96: US announces $120m for SA black companies,

No.30 2 August 96: Peace Corps moves into SA; Projects named for EU funding,

No.31 9 Aug 96: Taiwan gives details of business,

No.32 16 Aug 96: Belgian security accused of connivance with hit-squads; Burundi discussed in Chile; Finland agrees water aid; Washington unhappy with proposed EU-SA trade deal,

No.33 6 Sept 96: Iranian president on visit,

No.34 13 Sept 96: China takes Taiwan recognition battle with SA into Africa; EU hints it may call of trade deal; SA defiant on Iran and Libya links despite US objections,

No.35 20 Sept 96: DR Church 'still unreformed'; Ethical investors turn against sweatshops; Massive rise in Mid-East trade; Oil deal with Iran off - for now; SA seeks to corner African waste,

No.36 27 Sept 96: Afghanis link up with anti-crime vigilante groups; Mandela to mediate in Palestine; Military deal with Germany agreed; Talks paralysis as region rejects SA's bid for deal with EU; Trade mission to Iran,

No.37 4 Oct 96: Mandela postpones Mid-East visit; South East Asia visit ahead; Washington canvasses support for African crisis force,

No.38 11 Oct 96: EU ministers seek to prevent talks on SA pact at summit; Veto on steel loan deepens chill around EU-SA free trade talks,

No.39 18 Oct 96: Chile is contender for UK subs; Malaysia 'pressured by US'; Pretoria warns on EU's trade deal; Sweden announces new grants,

No.40 25 Oct 96: EU agrees to boost unions' skills,

No.41 1 Nov 96: EU beef aid plan likely to undercut region's farmers; Washington officials concerned at proposed EU trade pact,

No.42 8 Nov 96: British beef seized in Durban; Free trade body under attack; Posting will boost EU diplomacy,

No.43 15 Nov 96: Criticism of EU free trade deal,

No.44 22 Nov 96: Iraqi opposition complains; New deal for US and Africa; Ukraine minister to visit Armscor,

No.45 29 Nov 96: Boost to trade with Brazil forecast; SA to cut links to Taiwan and recognise Beijing,

No.47-8 13 Dec 96: Back to the wall, Taiwan fears another regional cut-off,



No.01 5 Jan 96: Talks resume despite fresh government sorties,

No.02 12 Jan 96: International supporters rally as peace falters,

No.03 19 Jan 96: Unita's slowness in quartering troops puts summit in doubt,

No.04 26 Jan 96: US warning to Unita - may be abandoned,

No.05 2 Feb 96: Unita moves troops into 'pre-confinement' pose,

No.06 9Feb96: UN extends mandate as Unita troops begin move into camps,

No.07 16 Feb 96: Savimbi spells out conditions as Unita troops are garrisoned,

No.08 23 Feb 96: Luanda seeks to cut smuggling; Savimbi seeks to reassure on garrisoning of troops,

No.09 1 March 96: Summit scheduled for Gabon; Unita alleges military bias from Unavem and observer states,

No.10 8 March 96: Government of national unity agreed at summit,

No.11 15 March 96: Portugal to boost economic and military presence,

No.12 22 March 96: Joint military company; Savimbi plans alliances in new government of national unity,

No.13 29 March 96: Savimbi wants active role for vice-president,

No.14 12 April 96: Boost to Cabindan oil output; De Beers gets prospecting rights; Government plans offensive in south against 'bandits',

No.18 10 May 96: Speculation on health of president,

No.15 19 April 96: Talks soon on unity government,

No.16 26apr96: Government suspends joint talks,

No.19 17 May 96: Bid to regulate private security; Debt for equity plan again mooted in Lisbon,

No.20 24 May 96: Breakthrough announced on armed forces integration,

No.21 31 May 96: Instability fears in Luanda,

No.22 7 June 96: Carcinogenic oil' sent to Angola; First Unita officers join army; Mandela visit off as Dos Santos wrestles with corrupt state,

No.23 14 June 96: Independent trade union formed; Reshuffle unlikely to improve economic lot of citizens; Talks open with Savimbi on diamond sector; Zambia repatriation delayed,

No.24 21 June 96: Demobilisation target met; More diamond talks scheduled,

No.25 28 June 96: Half a million refugees; Savimbi's cabinet job in unity government under discussion,

No.26 5 July 96: Massive integration of Unita forces into unified army begins; Moco to head Lusophone group; Savimbi concedes on PM's post; Truce with Cabinda rebels,

No.26 5 July 96: New economic crisis plan unveiled to dampen unrest,

No.27 12 July 96: UN seeks to establish unity government timetable; Unita alleges mercenaries remain,

No.28 19 July 96: Summit meeting scheduled,

No.30 2 August 96: Cabinda truce talks break down; Government discovers mass grave; Unita hands over heavy weapons,

No.31 9 Aug 96: Deal with Zambia on visas; Loy takes on reconstruction job; Portugal eases travel,

No.32 16 Aug 96: Fresh delays to new army; Illegals repatriated - at a cost,

No.33 6 Sept 96: Economy in serious condition; SADC's security organ into play,

No.34 13 Sept 96: Fresh hopes for unity government as Unita generals join army,

No.35 20 Sept 96: Deep mistrust as Luanda turns down Unita generals,

No.36 27 Sept 96: Demobilisation of Unita youths,

No.37 4 Oct 96: Savimbi thwarts SADC's bid to mediate summit meeting,

No.38 11 Oct 96: Unita rehashes unity government plan with fresh suggestions,

No.39 18 Oct 96: All round diplomatic push to move Unita to final hurdle,

No.40 25 Oct 96: SADC calls for more pressure; Unita generals get new jobs,

No.42 8 Nov 96: Unita arms cache found,

No.43 15 Nov 96: Unita releases names of officials for government,

No.44 22 Nov 96: Unita concerned for ally as Zaire's military crumbles,

No.45 29 Nov 96: Madeira autonomy model?; Unita seeks new summit meeting as Savimbi spells out 'distrust',

No.47-8 13 Dec 96: Unita fears government encroachment on its areas,


No.08 23 Feb 96: Declining minerals hit economy; Diamond liaison deal with Russia,

No.11 15 March 96: Dutch arms sales goes through,

No.14 12 April 96: Bushmen' fight government ,

No.15 19 April 96: World's highest per capita foreign reserves announced,

No.16 26apr96: Troops deployed near island disputed with Namibia,

No.17 3May96: Plans to fence off Namibia border,

No.19 17 May 96: Poachers are the focus of BDF activity says Khama,

No.27 12 July 96: SA defence minister calls for stronger armies in region,

No.29 26 July 96: Hardline position on ivory taken,

No.31 9 Aug 96: EDF gives $25m for mining; Over 40,000 illegals repatriated,


No.03 19 Jan 96: Period of uncertainty heralded by king's car death,

No.07 16 Feb 96: SA police charged over killings,

No.09 1 March 96: Fewer go to the SA mines,

No.10 8 March 96: Calm after 'mickey mouse' coup;

No.12 22 March 96: Scotland Yard inquiry into death,

No.13 29 March 96: Treason charges for broadcast,

No.20 24 May 96: SA politicians fail to turn up,

No.25 28 June 96: Migrants seek permanent status,

No.33 6 Sept 96: Parastatals for privatisation,

No.35 20 Sept 96: Clashes on Highlands Scheme,

No.36 27 Sept 96: Probe announced into police shootings on Water Project,

No.45 29 Nov 96: Mokhehle 'was member of SA police Vlakplaas unit',

No.46 6 Dec 96: PM 'didn't know' of Vlakplaas,


No.01 5 Jan 96: Banda, Tembo acquitted; Billion dollars pledged,

No.04 26 Jan 96: Japan 'concerned at aid disbursement failure',

No.13 29 March 96: Good prospects for economy,

No.18 10 May 96: Vice-president resigns,

No.16 26apr96: 180 parastatals to be sold off,

No.19 17 May 96: 2m out of 10m will have HIV,

No.22 7 June 96: Opposition departure welcomed,

No.26 5 July 96: Banda wins on Press Trust,

No.29 26 July 96: Muluzi includes Aford ministers,

No.37 4 Oct 96: UK warns on state spending,

No.40 25 Oct 96: Probe sought into Banda's abuses,

No.43 15 Nov 96: State fraud on miners revealed; Stock exchange starts up,

No.45 29 Nov 96: Dissidents group makes threat,


No.01 5 Jan 96: 40% of new budget to be funded by foreign aid; Donors demand consensus between parties; Emergency provisions declared; New land law proposed to resolve chaos over leasing,

No.04 26 Jan 96: Crackdown on Chimwenjes; US threatens to end food aid because of theft,

No.05 2 Feb 96: Dissidents allegedly confirm links to Zimbabwe opposition; Illegals 'still forcibly repatriated'; Scandal over interior minister's prison remarks,

No.06 9Feb96: Company's drug link may embarrass prime minister; SA announces land mine deal,

No.07 16 Feb 96: Deal on SA farmers finally agreed; Pension payments in dispute,

No.08 23 Feb 96: Lonrho to explore for oil,

No.09 1 March 96: Muslims want property back; Tax on returning miners,

No.11 15 March 96: Religious holidays furore,

No.12 22 March 96: Clearing banks to be privatised,

No.13 29 March 96: Riots by veterans in Beira,

No.14 12 April 96: Business angered by SA's share,

No.18 10 May 96: Corridor investment conference ends on high note; Deal on SA farmers goes through,

No.15 19 April 96: Corruption pledge in Paris,

No.16 26apr96: Agriculture chief arrested; Dhlakama threatens to pull officer; Mocumbi secures more aid than requested at Paris donor meeting,

No.17 3May96: Cashew factories privatised; Muslim attack on Catholics,

No.19 17 May 96: Frelimo reveals sharp rift with its ministers on policy,

No.21 31 May 96: New hydro stations planned; Police move onto campus,

No.22 7 June 96: New trade arrangements set out,

No.23 14 June 96: Customs chief sacked; Increased co-operation with Zimbabwe on Chimwenje fight; Too few bidders for state bank,

No.24 21 June 96: Claims of 2m mines disputed,

No.25 28 June 96: Conscription proposal defended; IMF money arrives on basis of more privatisation; More SA farmers sought,

No.26 5 July 96: SA begins charges for visas,

No.27 12 July 96: Criminals 'take over police'; Dhlakama in talks with Viljoen; Muslim holidays not promulgated,

No.29 26 July 96: Crown Agents take over customs; Islamic holiday law goes to court,

No.30 2 August 96: Portuguese interests run bank,

No.31 9 Aug 96: Army trains with US commandos; Chimwenjes sentenced,

No.32 16 Aug 96: Gemstone mining attacked; Swiss give $15m,

No.35 20 Sept 96: Economy grows by 7.4%; Iran to help in mine-clearing,

No.36 27 Sept 96: BP secures oil prospecting deal; Military chief calls for larger army; SA farmers arrive in Niassa; SA grants some visa exemptions; Saudi's Yamani visits; US commercial food aid again,

No.37 4 Oct 96: Cahora Bassa workers strike; Reconciliation failure warning,

No.38 11 Oct 96: Donors concerned at crime wave; SA farmers miss growing season,

No.39 18 Oct 96: Military in state of collapse,

No.41 1 Nov 96: Ground prepared for local elections,

No.42 8 Nov 96: Armed forces bill scrapped; New owners 'not monitored',

No.43 15 Nov 96: Chissano sacks interior minister,

No.44 22 Nov 96: Police propose armed vigilantes to counter crime,

No.46 6 Dec 96: Graca Machel declines; wins concessions from Paris Club creditors,

No.47-8 13 Dec 96: Government does about-turn on local elections,


No.01 5 Jan 96: EU puts money into NBC,

No.06 9Feb96: Support for Geingob's bid to halt growing corruption,

No.08 23 Feb 96: Growth crashes as key sectors fail; Nigerian strongman to visit,

No.11 15 March 96: Angola may mediate on border; Deal struck with 'cultural body'; Swapo detainees issue finally goes public,

No.13 29 March 96: Despite Swapo's concern, dissidents debate opens up,

No.14 12 April 96: Cabinet reshuffled,

No.18 10 May 96: Special border force trained,

No.16 26apr96: Garoeb goes as Swapo chief; Welcome for UN forces on border,

No.17 3May96: PM says no to press curbs law,

No.22 7 June 96: Drought measures announced; Military deal signed with Russia,

No.23 14 June 96: Plan to pipe water from Okavango; Regional power treaty signed,

No.24 21 June 96: Suspicions mount over Botswana's intentions,

No.25 28 June 96: Tanks deal discussed in Bonn,

No.27 12 July 96: Germany reassures on Dutch sale of tanks to Botswana; Nujoma in Spain for fishing talks,

No.30 2 August 96: Bid to cut drought fraud,

No.32 16 Aug 96: Fishing industry badly hit,

No.33 6 Sept 96: Warning on copper mine strike,

No.34 13 Sept 96: New style fishing agreement mooted with EU,

No.35 20 Sept 96: Nujoma reshuffles cabinet,

No.37 4 Oct 96: US gives drought aid,

No.38 11 Oct 96: Costliest strike at Tsumeb ends; New calls for Truth Commission,

No.41 1 Nov 96: Brussels announces aid for trade; Housing construction fraud,

No.43 15 Nov 96: Landmines killed ; Russians trawlers arrested,

No.44 22 Nov 96: Ports boost profits by 71%,


No.01 5 Jan 96: Rains break drought,

No.02 12 Jan 96: SADC prepares to bring dispute with Comesa to a head,

No.03 19 Jan 96: Uganda rejects call to join SADC,

No.04 26 Jan 96: New regional security structure; Over 28,500 border arrests,

No.05 2 Feb 96: Free trade agreement in August?,

No.06 9Feb96: SA criticised for sidelining neighbours,

No.07 16 Feb 96: Concern over unsupervised SA airstrips,

No.08 23 Feb 96: Agreement on island dispute; SA agrees to let illegals stay; SADC to focus on poverty,

No.09 1 March 96: US agrees to boost SADC trade,

No.10 8 March 96: SA editors defend Zambian journalists under attack;

No.12 22 March 96: Military discuss marine resources; SADC parliament to debate rights,

No.18 10 May 96: First multilateral police action,

No.15 19 April 96: Tazara workers reinstated,

No.16 26apr96: $10m facility for SA bank to export to Africa; Human rights meeting attacks regional record; Maputo corridor will widen to include neighbours; Wits to train in radiation,

No.17 3May96: EPZs blamed by ICFTU,

No.17 3May96: Regional security meeting,

No.19 17 May 96: Italian NGOs take most EU aid; Nujoma seeks SA backing,

No.20 24 May 96: Mandela offers to mediate on Liberia dispute,

No.21 31 May 96: Namibian concern at Maputo Corridor project,

No.22 7 June 96: Illegals face tighter controls; UK plea for SA to ease trade,

No.24 21 June 96: SA officers gear up for regional peacekeeping role,

No.25 28 June 96: Lusaka tells SADC security summit not to discuss crisis; Zambian is consensus candidate for ACP secretariat,

No.26 5 July 96: Concern over Burundi situation; SADC forms security body with wide ranging objectives,

No.28 19 July 96: SA defence minister calls for arms build-up in region; SA, Tanzanian navy chiefs meet; Suspicions grow that Unita may be involved in Burundi,

No.29 26 July 96: Backing for Brazil's UN bid; SA agrees to cut in tariffs; SADC meeting will seek to give muscle to Berlin accord; Wrangling over Botswana tanks spreads to Europe,

No.30 2 August 96: Commission to probe arms smuggling allegations; Failure again on easing tariffs; Germany weighs advantages of mine clearing technology; SA becomes focus for solving Burundi stalemate,

No.31 9 Aug 96: Mbeki strives for compromise political solution in Burundi,

No.32 16 Aug 96: $5bn investment mooted for Maputo Corridor; Breakthrough announced on SADC free trade deal; Confusion over call to NGO,

No.34 13 Sept 96: Mozambique gets most SA aid; SA military begins preparations for regional peace role; Sierra Leone rebels launch offensive against SA mercenaries,

No.35 20 Sept 96: SA military chief in Namibia,

No.36 27 Sept 96: SA may supply arms to Rwanda government,

No.37 4 Oct 96: Criticism mounts as SA agrees to sale of arms to Rwanda,

No.39 18 Oct 96: US crisis force plan comes up against SADC suspicion,

No.40 25 Oct 96: Leaders seek to tie investment firmly to black empowerment,

No.41 1 Nov 96: SA likely to grow more involved in Eastern Zaire crisis; Zaire may not come apart,

No.42 8 Nov 96: Arms stopped at border; Colonial borders issue opened; SA mercenaries may become involved in Great Lakes crisis; Zaire crisis - SA prepares to send in thousands of troops,

No.43 15 Nov 96: Operation unlikely to restore peace after Mobutu intervenes; SA troops in East Zaire will not be seen as neutral; UN arms probe accuses Zaire,

No.44 22 Nov 96: Great Lakes crisis - logistical aid now likely after refugees return; Mbeki's account of meeting countered by 'angry' Mobutu; Mercenary company admits approach from crisis region,

No.46 6 Dec 96: SADC calls for open markets; Small force now planned for Great Lakes conflict,

No.47-8 13 Dec 96: Angola had highest growth - and inflation - rate; SA backs OAU chief Salim against French indications of a veto; SADC to meet again on Great Lakes crisis,


No.02 12 Jan 96: Party warns of mass action, 2

No.03 19 Jan 96: Unions and opposition in call for mass action,

No.04 26 Jan 96: Mass strike brings pressure on region's last feudalists, 1

No.05 2 Feb 96: Strikers return as king sends police and army in, 1

No.06 9Feb96: SA gives oblique warning on involvement, 1

No.07 16 Feb 96: Relations with Pretoria chillier,

No.08 23 Feb 96: Unions call off action as king announces reform process,

No.09 1 March 96: Pressure for reform from US, SA,

No.10 8 March 96: Tax changes in new budget, 26,

No.11 15 March 96: New opposition alliance adopts hard line against king,

No.12 22 March 96: Opposition calls for formation of interim government, 4

No.13 29 March 96: Court action against unionists,

No.14 12 April 96: Demonstrations planned, 2

No.18 10 May 96: Mswati makes some changes,

No.17 3May96: SA rejects land claim,

No.24 21 June 96: Plea to students,

No.27 12 July 96: Teachers' strike continues as opposition demands change,

No.28 19 July 96: Teachers' strike ends,

No.29 26 July 96: Emergency' meeting presses king,

No.30 2 August 96: Mswati drafts in oppositionists,

No.31 9 Aug 96: Conditional support for king's constitutional reforms,

No.33 6 Sept 96: Opposition ditches 'reform' group,

No.35 20 Sept 96: Newspaper under threat, 2

No.36 27 Sept 96: Ex-police deny collaborator claim; Police deny De Kock's collaborator claims,

No.40 25 Oct 96: IMF chief praises former colleague, 1


No.01 5 Jan 96: Opposition party seeks ANC deal, 2

No.02 12 Jan 96: SA companies grab opportunities in Eastern Kasai,

No.09 1 March 96: SA firm may refurbish Kinshasa,

No.10 8 March 96: Civil servants return,

No.15 19 April 96: Elections timetable announced,

No.21 31 May 96: Mounting SA economic and political interest,

No.34 13 Sept 96: Mobutu health concern; Rwanda exiles 'may become cheap labour', 2

No.39 18 Oct 96: Fears rise about ailing Mobutu as election hopes recede, 1

No.45 29 Nov 96: Mobutu 'may not return' as rebels advance toward Kinshasa,

No.47-8 13 Dec 96: Mobutu seeks to mobilise mercenary force against rebels,


No.01 5 Jan 96: Export guarantees proposed,

No.03 19 Jan 96: Fall-out feared after defection of North Korean; Talks proceed with Anglo on Konkola take-over,

No.04 26 Jan 96: Still no deal with Anglo on copper,

No.05 2 Feb 96: Meridien payments begin, 1

No.07 16 Feb 96: SA offers protection to investors,

No.08 23 Feb 96: Venture capital fund started,

No.09 1 March 96: Civil servants in national strike; Power link with Tanzania; World Bank blames management of copper mines,

No.12 22 March 96: Half voters fail to register, 4

No.13 29 March 96: Copper seizure complaint by Zaire; Money laundering bill; Public service sackings stopped,

No.14 12 April 96: Donors accused of interference, 2

No.15 19 April 96: Chiluba gets court protection,

No.16 26apr96: Kaunda cannot contend,

No.19 17 May 96: Final constitution moves closer,

No.20 24 May 96: Law goes through on banning Kaunda as contender,

No.21 31 May 96: Approval for sale of ZCCM,

No.22 7 June 96: Kaunda's top officials arrested,

No.24 21 June 96: Soldiers held amid 'coup' fears,

No.25 28 June 96: Donor cuts will have severe repercussions says UNDP,

No.27 12 July 96: MMD's mass base seems firm after local election victories,

No.28 19 July 96: US cuts aid in protest,

No.29 26 July 96: IMF, World Bank pledge to continue support, 5

No.31 9 Aug 96: First private power station; Lonrho announces investments,

No.32 16 Aug 96: Farmers' party formed,

No.33 6 Sept 96: Chiluba hints at concession to KK,

No.34 13 Sept 96: Chiluba turns down plea on KK,

No.35 20 Sept 96: Drug traffic 'alarming', 2

No.36 27 Sept 96: Tensions rise as Kaunda announces boycott of election, 2

No.39 18 Oct 96: Election date is withheld; Human Rights body on the way, 1

No.40 25 Oct 96: Kaunda repeats boycott threat; World Bank disburses $45m,

No.41 1 Nov 96: Presidential contenders are announced,

No.42 8 Nov 96: Kaunda arrest threat,

No.43 15 Nov 96: Mandela gives Chiluba ultimatum,

No.44 22 Nov 96: Chiluba snubs Mandela's advice, secures massive win,

No.45 29 Nov 96: Opposition warns of military take-over if unrest spreads; Parties represent ethnic groups,

No.46 6 Dec 96: Chiluba adopts hard line,

No.47-8 13 Dec 96: Refugees from Zaire screened for possible 'mercenaries',


No.01 5 Jan 96: 10% increase in foreign holdings; French delegation to visit; Presidential poll date announced, 2

No.02 12 Jan 96: Confrontation with IMF admitted; EU aid for landmine clearing; World Bank to lend $69m, 2

No.03 19 Jan 96: First salvo fired in presidential electioneering,

No.04 26 Jan 96: Threat to divert cargo to Beira, 1

No.08 23 Feb 96: Independent MP calls for boycott; NGO law to be revisited,

No.09 1 March 96: Rains to boost growth to 6%,

No.10 8 March 96: 800,000 jobs lost, 26,

No.12 22 March 96: Mugabe's hollow victory may defeat economic reforms,

No.13 29 March 96: Border security stepped up,

No.14 12 April 96: Zanu concern at voter apathy, 2

No.18 10 May 96: Cell phone deal nullified; Chimwenje border alert,

No.15 19 April 96: Banks argues against IMF views; Chinese president to visit; Companies send funds abroad; Fresh call for constitution talks; New finance minister soon,

No.17 3May96: A million face famine; Unions seek 30% of firms,

No.19 17 May 96: Finance ministry post occupied,

No.20 24 May 96: Child labour threat to exports,

No.20 24 May 96: More Chimwenji movement,

No.21 31 May 96: Chinese aid for steel mill; Mugabe threatens trade war; Para regiment cut down,

No.23 14 June 96: Belgrade investment sought; UK to give provisional aid,

No.24 21 June 96: Mugabe accuses Lonrho,

No.25 28 June 96: SA agents to remain in jail,

No.26 5 July 96: Privatisations soon says Mugabe; Reserve army to be started; Textile firms concede on tariffs,

No.27 12 July 96: Chimwenje threat discussed amid reports of 'offensive',

No.28 19 July 96: Black empowerment groups warn against expatriates; Mugabe ensures successor vacuum remains,

No.29 26 July 96: Army cut by 12,; Government bans gays again,

No.30 2 August 96: Court rejects government gay ban; Highest growth predicted in budget after bumper crops,

No.31 9 Aug 96: Deal on tariffs is finally struck, 3

No.32 16 Aug 96: Bank warns on domestic debt,

No.33 6 Sept 96: Civil servants take on government,

No.34 13 Sept 96: Meeting on land reform,

No.35 20 Sept 96: Malaysia power station deal; Solar summit plea, 2

No.38 11 Oct 96: Mugabe rides roughshod over opposition to Malaysia contract; Weekly AIDS toll leaps,

No.39 18 Oct 96: Parliament seeks to overcome rubber-stamp history, 1

No.40 25 Oct 96: Health workers fire warning shot; SA tightens visa restrictions,

No.41 1 Nov 96: Malaysian company secures logging rights; Zanu drops Marxism-Leninism tag,

No.43 15 Nov 96: End heralded to media monopoly; IMF rules out further aid,

No.45 29 Nov 96: Trade talks with SA reopen,

No.46 6 Dec 96: Beira corridor investment planned; Calls for lower SA tariffs; Media new guard thwarted,

No.47-8 13 Dec 96: Mugabe rejects MPs' hopes for constitutional reform,