SOUTHSCAN

A Weekly Bulletin of Southern African Affairs
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Index Vol.13 1998

Issues 1-25, January 9 - December 11


 

South Africa

 

SA development

No.01 9 Jan 98: Concern mounts at prison escapes; Crisis in education is highlighted by matric failures; Pension system to be privatised; Telkom to share from 2004; Transkei police officers to answer,

No.02 23 Jan 98: Corruption cases against police; DBSA gives apartheid back pay; Military retrenchments ahead,

No.03 6 Feb 98: Fees crisis hits universities; Mineral rights reserved for state; New chief for Masakhane,

No.04 20 Feb 98: Boost for foreign media owners, 6; Verdict soon on public job cuts,

No.05 6 Mar 98: Brain drain continues; Media fears for independence; Mercenary law may not deter security business; Over half live below poverty line; Pretoria may take over running of maladministered provinces; Security workers continue strike; Two ministries may go under 'right-sizing' project,

No.06 20 Mar 98: SABC chief steps down,

No.07 3 Apr 98: Shake-up in television ahead after first commercial licence won,

No.09 1 May 98: Re-equipment may exceed R10bn; Student numbers collapsing,

No.10 15 May 98: Arms tenders finalised; Demand for English on the rise,

No.11 29 May 98: Arms thefts from bases; Fewer soldiers fighting crime; Foreign consultants brought in to train intelligence, police; Fraud blamed on open economy,

No.12 12 June 98: Bid to end land claims by year end; NGOs hopeful for new state development agency; Small N-power stations possible; Surprise choice for SABC head,

No.13 26 June 98: Black investment in AIDS drug, 1; Police spending cut, claims DP,

No.14 10 July 98: U-turn towards skilled workers,

No.15 24 July 98: AIDS economic cost strikes home, 2; Call for crisis fund for East Cape; New prosecutor to hit major crime,

No.16 7 Aug 98: Most think TRC hurt race relations; New law will hit at gangsters,

No.17 21 Aug 98: UK boost for planning unit,

No.18 4 Sept 98: R7 billion in corrupt deals probed,

No.19 18 Sept 98: Blacks fear crime most,

No.20 2 Oct 98: Crime protests led by farmers, 2; Gangs bill slammed,

No.21 16 Oct 98: Government, farmers agree; Mafia boss based in SA; Voter registration next month,

No.22 30 Oct 98: AZT decision backed; Census means lower expenditure; Crime statistics stay gloomy; Mineral rights to vest in state; National action' sought amidst gathering crime and corruption,

No.23 13 Nov 98: Anti-corruption plans adopted; Land claims to be speeded up in face of massive backlog,

No.25 11 Dec 98: Aids impact worse for SA; Arms sanctions money sought; Crime at all levels revealed; Indigenous' people conference; More tourists arrive,

 

SA economy

No.01 9 Jan 98: Forex reserves rise as fears calm over SA's emerging market; Korean gold plan hits SA stocks; Less maize to be planted this year; Massive rise in unemployment forecast by Finance Ministry,

No.02 23 Jan 98: Government plans to borrow $1bn,

No.03 6 Feb 98: Black empowerment under fire after JCI debacle; Hold line on gold, Mbeki urges; Mbeki buoyant on economy at Davos despite contrary mood; US investment rises, but jobs are down; Workers riot at steel plant,

No.04 20 Feb 98: Brief hold on gold mining lay-offs, 6; Exchange controls to remain, 5; Manuel bales out bankrupt provinces - but unofficially, 4; Rand may fall more,

No.05 6 Mar 98: Black firms increase on JSE; Car sales continue to fall; Dire gold mining predictions; Emerging business benefits; Hopes pinned to job initiatives; Low growth but praise for Gear; Trade figures down,

No.06 20 Mar 98: Budget juggled to please all, but underlying problems unresolved; Few Gear targets met; More companies go global; Riot fund to reduce debt; Unions grow restive under threat to public sector jobs,

No.07 3 Apr 98: Rash of rationalisations frees big business from constraints,

No.08 17 Apr 98: Harder line on wages ahead to counter low growth; Miners' leader joins Anglogold; R250m lost in cheque fraud,

No.09 1 May 98: Higher growth hopes rise, 8; Jobs summit postponed amid news of major retrenchments, 4; Surge in union membership,

No.10 15 May 98: Airports deal banks on tourism; Figures show switch to more capital intensive industry; Government shows renewed urgency on jobs summit,

No.11 29 May 98: Business job creation proposals; Competition bill published; Currency and markets take another hammering; Move to performance related pay; SA jumps to risk ratings tune,

No.12 12 June 98: Rand's fall hits confidence ,

No.13 26 June 98: Labour minister Mboweni determined to have job summit; More hints of a recession after Rand takes a tumble; Privatisation progress spelled out; Productivity up, but jobs lost,

No.14 10 July 98: Despite Reserve Bank change economy remains vulnerable; Transnet posts profit; Virtues of 'grey economy' questioned,

No.15 24 July 98: SA, now 'riskier than Russia', will stay the Gear course says Manuel,

No.16 7 Aug 98: Jobs summit still delayed; Major strikes hit home as job summit misses another date; Tourism and defence growth,

No.17 21 Aug 98: German-style privatisation agency heralds new wave of sell-offs; Unemployment rises by 6 percent,

No.18 4 Sept 98: EU deal may limit SA's capacity for defence in world finance crisis, 1; Job summit date announced; R252 million trade deficit; Strike in support of car workers,

No.19 18 Sept 98: Foreign investment being lost; More financial regulation backed,

No.20 2 Oct 98: 500 delegates for jobs summit; Concern rises over strikes; Exports take a dive, 2; Reserve Bank holds to course in choppy financial waters; Unions to gain from privatisation,

No.21 16 Oct 98: Anglo pulls out, lists in London; Manuel discovers IMF is leaving SA to stew in economic crisis; Military re-equipment now R30bn,

No.22 30 Oct 98: Accord but no jobs to come from summit; Asian investment 'not decreased'; Business pessimism on laws; First cracks appear in official macro-economic strategy; Jobs proposals - who pays?,

No.23 13 Nov 98: Detailed picture of labour losses, 3; Job creation projects planned as more losses loom; Mining companies attacked, 3; Racial schisms re-emerge, 3; Strikes this year surge,

No.24 27 Nov 98: New data shows economy 'already in a recession',

No.25 11 Dec 98: Over R5bn left country after crisis,

 

SA politics

No.01 9 Jan 98: Efforts to resurrect Sanco underway; Farmers welcome illegal aliens; NP buses Transkeians to Cape farms; Reconciliation takes a battering from Botha and Farrakhan; Venda paramount chief Mphephu buried,

No.02 23 Jan 98: Gauteng premier inaugurated under corruption story cloud; Mbeki begins his tightrope walk in development of national budget; New premier hits at black empowerment trends; Troops go in after ANC-IFP fight,

No.03 6 Feb 98: ANC names task team to investigate Motshekga; Organised crime threatens state's credibility with high profile heists; Protest over journalist's expulsion; Sexwale to boost SA-Russian links; UDM leaders clear the ground ahead of Nkabinde trial,

No.04 20 Feb 98: Crisis measures taken as TRC drowns in amnesty applications; Empowerment drive becoming dominant theme; Government prepares to take over foreign NGO personnel choices; Omar resigns as Cape ANC leader, 3; Resignation from Cape cabinet, 3; Set-back for Molefe's anti-corruption crusade, 1; Tutu pleads for white remorse,

No.05 6 Mar 98: ANC bridles at public Church challenge on its record; Profit prize claimed to be ANC's AIDS drug motivation,

No.06 20 Mar 98: Arrest of top official uncovers tensions in security apparatus; Defence need for chemical plant; TRC seeks mass grave on farm,

No.07 3 Apr 98: Corruption syndicates alleged; IFP damaged by allegations against top official; Internecine battle in Gauteng may be harbinger of falling ANC vote; Political gain for government from carpeting generals,

No.08 17 Apr 98: Amnesty hearings threaten to disturb IFP-ANC relations; Belgian arms dealer's stocks 'from US Vietnam supplies'; Boesak fraud trial off again; Evidence in Botha trial raises fresh racial polarisation fears; Military Intelligence, bastion of old guard, faces purge; More arrests in McBride case,

No.09 1 May 98: ANC steps up its wooing of IFP; Gauteng premier cleared by ANC; MK chief heads Defence Force ahead of major cuts; Police botch Nkabinde trial; Quebec option' posed for Cape; Strict affirmative action targets,

No.10 15 May 98: ANC fine tunes its poll victory call; ANC rebuffed on 'contempt'; Block amnesty overturned; Faster land reform becomes condition for poll deal; KZN peace grows more tenuous; Shell House responsibility claimed,

No.11 29 May 98: Chiefs' powers an issue again; Intelligence secrecy attacked; Opposition parties urged to join forces against ANC,

No.12 12 June 98: Far right claims military thefts; Mbeki champions poor against black and white elites; Mbeki nervous over chemical secrets at TRC hearing; Poll shows stronger ANC support; Teaching crisis continues; Winnie grabs initiative on McBride ,

No.13 26 June 98: Alliance in choppy waters again as summit is postponed; ANC seeks to thwart leftward move at SACP congress; Chemical arms 'destroyed'; Machel crash inquiry may reopen; McBride is finally charged; Remains of ANC cadres exhumed; UDM drops co-leader Meyer, changes tack for election,

No.14 10 July 98: Buthelezi relaunches federalism; Employment equity bill introduced; Fiery new leader for SACP; SACP reeling from Mandela, Mbeki attacks; Warlords inciting new violence,

No.15 24 July 98: ANC risks losing support because of Richmond security failures; Mangope guilty of fraud, theft; Mbeki and Buthelezi deal will bring in IFP and displace Left; NP's election hopes will suffer most from Vlok's admissions,

No.16 7 Aug 98: Basson's trial postponed; Buthelezi may seek new 'prime minister' post in new cabinet; Crackdown on dissent in IFP,

No.17 21 Aug 98: ANC leadership tightens grip on provinces; Government proposes summit on continuing farm killings; More intelligence co-ordination; Security branch policemen seek amnesty for bombings,

No.18 4 Sept 98: ANC 'will miss two-thirds target'; Provincial rebelliousness remains,

No.19 18 Sept 98: ANC's drift to Right comes under challenge from Mbeki loyalist; More guns from Mozambique; Omar 'reneged on extradition',

No.20 2 Oct 98: Ex rugby boss forms new party, 3; Key countries and regions neglected in foreign affairs; Rights group on foreign policy,

No.21 16 Oct 98: Ad agencies get ANC contract; Amnesty plan in power sharing talks between ANC and IFP; Search for Afrikaner unity,

No.22 30 Oct 98: Malan trial prosecutor ditched; TRC final reports gets wide welcome despite ANC anger,

No.23 13 Nov 98: ANC economist makes sudden move into business, 5; Fifth of voters not registered, 6; Viljoen against new party,

No.24 27 Nov 98: $5.2bn military deal defended against backdrop of regional war; Poll shows ANC support dropping; Public sector cuts may follow; Ramaphosa to enter politics again; Talks continue on blanket amnesty for TRC accused,

No.25 11 Dec 98: ANC amnesty issue unsolved as Mandela takes hard line; Dissent issue set to emerge as elections campaign theme; EO closes of SA office; Long-time Mbeki ally Zuma sidelined in favour of Buthelezi, 2; Shilowa urges union engagement,

 

Region

Angola

No.01 9 Jan 98: Fresh warning on flights from Zambia; MPLA troops remain in Pointe Noire; Unita ousted from diamond valley,

No.02 23 Jan 98: Diamond mines take-over signals endgame for the war party; Mercenaries expelled as ground is cleared for peace,

No.03 6 Feb 98: Expulsion of British security firm linked to French interests; Military agreement with Russia; S. Africans held after Unita flight,

No.04 20 Feb 98: $5bn budget agreed; SA closes small airports,

No.05 6 Mar 98: Tighter sanctions warning,

No.06 20 Mar 98: Another giant oil find announced; EO still working for government?; Unita expels Manuvakola; Unita rejects civilian party status, relies on Togo's help,

No.07 3 Apr 98: Critical moment for peace as deadline passes,

No.08 17 Apr 98: Unita flights still leaving,

No.09 1 May 98: Diamond report given; FAA accused of atrocities in Congo-Brazzaville; Mandela visit opens way for SA business operations,

No.10 15 May 98: Hostile talk from Luanda; Human rights body set up; Major diamond and oil discoveries,

No.12 12 June 98: Security firms sense rich pickings; Unita troops 'ready for new war',

No.13 26 June 98: Russia seeks diamonds for debt,

No.14 10 July 98: Unita may be seeking to regain diamond diggings,

No.15 24 July 98: Meetings held with regional leaders as fighting increases,

No.16 7 Aug 98: Deepening concern that war will spill over into region,

No.17 21 Aug 98: Luanda warns again of Unita aid; Russian defence minister visits,

No.18 4 Sept 98: Long war will drain Luanda; Major defection signals Unita split, 6; Rebels 'not our enemies' - Unita,

No.19 18 Sept 98: Luanda seeks international recognition of Unita dissidents,

No.20 2 Oct 98: Ban on foreign workers; Oil supplies to Portugal cut; SADC members may help in 'elimination' of rebels; Trial of S. Africans begins,

No.21 16 Oct 98: New addition to dissident group,

No.22 30 Oct 98: Poison alleged in general's death,

No.23 13 Nov 98: Heavy fighting in Cabinda,

No.24 27 Nov 98: UN calls for peace force extension,

No.25 11 Dec 98: Hardliners win the day as battles rage in highlands, 2; MEPs 'sponsor' Unita MPs,

 

Botswana

No.07 3 Apr 98: Former army chief is new president's right hand man,

 

Congo

No.01 9 Jan 98: Army and president used most forex; Kabila's cousin becomes interior minister; US resentment at Anglo after cancellation of mining deal,

No.02 23 Jan 98: Ex-mercenary 'advising' police; Gecamines charge will aid Anglo,

No.03 6 Feb 98: Chinese weapons for Kabila,

No.04 20 Feb 98: Belgian mercenary expelled; Heavy fall-out anticipated after opposition leader's arrest; SA-Belgian consortium 'paid ransom to Kinshasa',

No.06 20 Mar 98: EU offers aid for demobilisation as tensions grow in the east; Ex-generals stay amidst fresh coup plot stories,

No.08 17 Apr 98: Kabila government seeks to mend diplomatic fences,

No.10 15 May 98: Brussels and Pretoria find common cause on Kabila,

No.11 29 May 98: Credibility of opposition group damaged by mining interests,

No.12 12 June 98: Kabila meets Tshisekedi and reshuffles government; Thumbs down for exile group,

No.14 10 July 98: $1bn of Mobutu's funds seized; Tshisekedi's release linked to currency reform,

No.16 7 Aug 98: Kinshasa threatens Kigali as rebellion spreads,

No.17 21 Aug 98: War by proxy threatens,

No.18 4 Sept 98: Kabila 'approached EO for aid',

No.19 18 Sept 98: Angola and Zimbabwe hold key; Mercenaries spotted on all sides,

No.20 2 Oct 98: Kabila accused of 'selling off national heritage',

No.21 16 Oct 98: Angola gets payment for military aid in offshore oil allocation; Economy slides from bad to worse; Kabila's allies ponder expanding into the east to counter rebels,

No.22 30 Oct 98: Gulf widens between Mandela and Kabila and friends; US warns of African 'world war',

No.23 13 Nov 98: Kabila hands over mining assets to finance the war effort,

No.24 27 Nov 98: Fresh peace talks in Botswana fail; Kabila affirms international status but misses opportunities,

No.25 11 Dec 98: Kabila accuses SA of being a puppet as ceasefire deal fades,

 

International

No.01 9 Jan 98: Australia may redirect trade to SA; Caribbean trade delegation to visit; Links with China established amid hopes for trade and investment; Lusophone TV to counter Anglophones; New diplomats appointed; Russia loses out in defence re-equipment; Washington moots free trade pact,

No.02 23 Jan 98: Rail deal over Swedish warplane,

No.03 6 Feb 98: Denel aircraft peaceful - Algiers; EU presents detailed trade offer,

No.04 20 Feb 98: Danish government extends aid, 1; Final tenders for arms purchase, 7; Mbeki warns US on Mid-East,

No.05 6 Mar 98: Africa trade bill draws SA flak on eve of Clinton visit; R2-billion loan from EIB,

No.06 20 Mar 98: Anti-crime co-operation accord signed with Russia,

No.07 3 Apr 98: New US radio for Africa; Satisfaction on Lome and frustrations on trade; US competition with EU seen behind Clinton's Africa tour,

No.08 17 Apr 98: Armaments hard sell on Mbeki's Far Eastern trip; Cosatu rallies to Cuba; Japanese pressed for investment; Nzo to visit jailed Timorese leader; Russia to tender for trainer jets; Top level joint commission to be set up with China,

No.09 1 May 98: ANC to lobby for Yes in N. Ireland; Mandela to visit Algeria; SA formally joins Lome but EU trade issues remain unresolved,

No.10 15 May 98: Indonesian turmoil spoils economic, diplomatic hopes; SA will not cut arms sales to India; Trade talks running into sands,

No.12 12 June 98: No SA-EU free trade agreement in time for Cardiff summit ,

No.13 26 June 98: French seek to extend influence, 3; Libya arms for oil story denied,

No.14 10 July 98: Boost for Russian co-operation; France backs SA in UN reform,

No.15 24 July 98: More active role for Brazil sought,

No.16 7 Aug 98: Delay threatens foreign aid,

No.17 21 Aug 98: Arafat seeks Mandela's aid; Cuban doctor deal to continue,

No.18 4 Sept 98: SA seeks to rewrite traditional North-South relations,

No.19 18 Sept 98: Africa law postponed by Clinton; Fisheries linkage will prolong talks for trade agreement,

No.22 30 Oct 98: SA Tamil Tiger support claimed; Singapore military agreement,

No.24 27 Nov 98: Laws to counter Tamil Tigers?; Malaysia to buy SA helicopters; Russian arms co-operation sought; US concerned over medicines act,

 

Lesotho

No.04 20 Feb 98: Boost for US military cooperation; Police open fire on strikers,

No.10 15 May 98: Gold miners retrenched,

No.11 29 May 98: Anger after election results,

No.17 21 Aug 98: Election probed by regional team,

No.18 4 Sept 98: SA soldiers help with vote count,

No.19 18 Sept 98: Army and police out of control,

No.20 2 Oct 98: More questions than answers as smoke clears round Maseru; Politicians remain recalcitrant,

No.21 16 Oct 98: Government, opposition agree,

No.25 11 Dec 98: Interim authority meets,

 

Malawi

No.01 9 Jan 98: Row over Banda's will,

No.02 23 Jan 98: President appoints new army, police chiefs,

No.18 4 Sept 98: Malawi devalues currency,

No.20 2 Oct 98: Opposition parties confirm election alliance,

 

Mozambique

No.01 9 Jan 98: Dispute over Cahora Bassa contract; Higher growth rate predicted,

No.03 6 Feb 98: Russia in debt-rescheduling talks,

No.04 20 Feb 98: Joint policing of Maputo corridor; No foreign observers for elections,

No.05 6 Mar 98: Renamo refuses to register,

No.06 20 Mar 98: Local poll postponed for a month,

No.07 3 Apr 98: Mocumbi seeks Cahora power,

No.12 12 June 98: Opposition boycotts elections,

No.14 10 July 98: Military registration soon; Voters take no notice of election,

No.17 21 Aug 98: Youths refuse to sign up,

No.18 4 Sept 98: SA agricultural plan out of funds,

No.23 13 Nov 98: Selection tests for army,

No.25 11 Dec 98: US to support 1999 elections,

 

Namibia

No.01 9 Jan 98: US in land mine clearance operations,

No.03 6 Feb 98: Land redistribution targets set out,

No.04 20 Feb 98: Editor jailed in inquest,

No.05 6 Mar 98: No apology for massacres,

No.06 20 Mar 98: Drought cuts crops,

No.07 3 Apr 98: Growth target 'too high',

No.10 15 May 98: Warning on land reform delays,

No.11 29 May 98: Angolan rights activist deported,

No.15 24 July 98: Affirmative action for business,

No.22 30 Oct 98: Nujoma rejects Mandela's advice,

No.23 13 Nov 98: Reinforcements for Congo; Secessionists flee fighting in Caprivi Strip,

No.25 11 Dec 98: Swapo sweeps council elections,

 

Region

No.02 23 Jan 98: Peace keeping force gets further boost with Danish grant,

No.03 6 Feb 98: Rwanda meeting shows new regional anti-Angola dimension; UN probes arms supply again,

No.05 6 Mar 98: SA joins with Nigeria to slam Clinton's crisis force policy; Team heads for Comoros,

No.07 3 Apr 98: SA firm 'sold Russian-made helicopters to Rwanda',

No.08 17 Apr 98: Sasol to work in Nigeria,

No.09 1 May 98: Crisis force' idea gains ground,

No.10 15 May 98: Border tensions defused,

No.11 29 May 98: No peace force for Congo - Mbeki,

No.12 12 June 98: Nigeria-SA relations set to improve - behind veiled threat ,

No.13 26 June 98: SA arms dealers exposed in Brazzaville's 'White Book',

No.15 24 July 98: Crunch time for talks with EU; Regional forces invited for peace keeping exercise in SA; SA does not fear new army threat to Nigerian democracy plans,

No.16 7 Aug 98: Summit to prevent meltdown across Central Africa,

No.17 21 Aug 98: Mozal construction starts; On brink of 'unprecedented conflict' hardliners split SADC,

No.18 4 Sept 98: SA seeks to recoup its diplomatic losses on Congo intervention at peace summit,

No.19 18 Sept 98: SA's conciliation politics come in for a hammering; Special summit on security body,

No.20 2 Oct 98: Intervention to be 'defined'; More send troops into Congo,

No.21 16 Oct 98: Military exercise postponed; Zero population growth predicted because of AIDS,

No.22 30 Oct 98: Mandela visits Ecowas,

No.24 27 Nov 98: Hutus traffic in drugs for arms,

No.25 11 Dec 98: Mandela-Banana meeting complicates relations,

 

 

Swaziland

No.01 9 Jan 98: Parties sceptical of king's debate call,

No.04 20 Feb 98: Mswati announces elections,

No.17 21 Aug 98: Planes used for arms, drugs,

No.22 30 Oct 98: King reappoints ministers,

No.24 27 Nov 98: US experts help after bomb blasts,

No.25 11 Dec 98: Border dispute raised again,

US motives perplex,

 

Zambia

No.01 9 Jan 98: Chiluba defies neighbours,

No.04 20 Feb 98: Kaunda charged,

No.06 20 Mar 98: Chiluba lifts state of emergency; Chinese secure copper mine,

No.08 17 Apr 98: World Bank in ZCCM sale talks,

No.09 1 May 98: ZCCM talks start up again,

No.11 29 May 98: Kaunda's Unip party split,

No.13 26 June 98: EU to fund cut in civil service,

No.23 13 Nov 98: Ex-finance minister 'assassinated',

 

Zimbabwe

No.09 1 May 98: Old Zapu-Zanu splits reappear,

No.01 9 Jan 98: Britain keeps door open on aid for Mugabe's land reform; SA trade imbalance threatens business; Zambian air traffic controllers called in,

No.02 23 Jan 98: Government goes into reverse as rioters take to the streets,

No.03 6 Feb 98: Unions warn of fresh protests,

No.04 20 Feb 98: Ruling party defiant despite demonstrations and IMF pressure,

No.05 6 Mar 98: Land reform discussion in London; Stand-off between government and workers after general strike,

No.06 20 Mar 98: Kabila gets boost from Mugabe; Reporting ban urged,

No.07 3 Apr 98: Mugabe wins allies on land reform,

No.08 17 Apr 98: Reshuffle ahead as Mugabe seeks to undermine opponents,

No.10 15 May 98: Trade dispute flares again,

No.11 29 May 98: Riot police again in Harare streets,

No.12 12 June 98: Old students set up new party,

No.13 26 June 98: Squatters take initiative,

No.15 24 July 98: Churches concerned at tension,

No.16 7 Aug 98: Currency falls 20 percent,

No.18 4 Sept 98: Land take-over plans 'abandoned',

No.19 18 Sept 98: Modest land plan still dependent on outside funders,

No.20 2 Oct 98: Exchange controls contemplated as crisis deepens,

No.21 16 Oct 98: Budget comes at dangerous time as Mugabe's support wanes; Economic crisis and union showdown looms,

No.22 30 Oct 98: New political party to be launched by ex-Zanu maverick,

No.23 13 Nov 98: Troops on Harare streets and more in the Congo,

No.24 27 Nov 98: IMF to freeze payments after Mugabe reneges on land deal,

No.25 11 Dec 98: Business joins labour in plea for measures to solve crisis; Two birds with one stone as Libya bails out oil company

 

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Copyright reserved in all countries

Quotation only with credit